Now let’s look at the issues that arise when executives consider the four dimensions shown in Exhibit 1 in light of the degree of standardization or adaptation that is appropriate. First, many capable local nationals may not be interested in working outside their countries of origin. Here are two examples: By making the transfer of information easy, a multinational leverages the ideas of its staff and spreads organizational values. 2. In addition, local managers competing for resources and autonomy may devote too much attention to second-guessing headquarters’ “hot buttons.” Eventually the good managers may leave, and less competent people who lack the initiative of their predecessors may replace them. To overcome the limits of persuasion, many multinationals are coordinating their marketing programs so that headquarters has a structured role in both decision making and performance evaluation that is far more influential than person-to-person persuasion. In the 1980s and ‘90s, when the company first emerged onto the global stage, standardised products and messaging resulted in a backlash against American imperialism. Meanwhile, local managers trying to gain approval of applications for deviations from standard marketing programs are being frustrated. By coordinating programs with the field, headquarters can balance the company’s local and global perspectives. Any systematic headquarters effort to influence local managers to apply standardized approaches or introduce new global products while the managers retain their decision-making authority is a persuasion approach. For Nestlé, global marketing does not so much yield high manufacturing economies as high efficiency in using scarce new ideas. Overall, then, the driving factor in moving toward global marketing should be the efficient worldwide use of good marketing ideas rather than any scale economies from standardization. The country managers have not objected. But performance aside, small markets depend more on headquarters assistance than large markets. Use of a single agency (especially one that bills all advertising expenditures worldwide) also symbolizes a commitment to global marketing and more centralized control. If headquarters gives country managers total control of their product lines, it cannot leverage the opportunities that multinational status gives it. The big issue today is not whether to go global but how to tailor the global marketing concept to fit each business and how to make it work. The product, brand name, positioning, and package design were standardized globally. As Exhibit 2 indicates, headquarters can intervene at five points, ranging from informing to directing. Headquarters needs to give the field time to adjust to the new decision-making processes that multicountry brand teams and other new organizational structures require. This means the marketing mix of a product will vary from country to country. First, by adopting a wait-and-see attitude, country managers can easily turn down requests to be prime-mover markets on the grounds of insufficient resources. Personalized Marketing Examples. Examples of Mass customization. This is great for so many reasons and it’s absolutely a marketing best practice. The prime-mover market is usually selected according to criteria including the commitment of local management, the probabilities of success, the credibility with which a success would be regarded by managers in other countries, and its perceived transferability. Such an organizational change can clearly communicate top management’s strategic direction, but headquarters needs to do a persuasive selling job to the field if it is to succeed. In this case, managers in the United States can learn from British and Canadian country managers about how to deal with the pressures for extra merchandising support that result when a few powerful retailers control a large percentage of sales. The following companies have found the key to establishing their names as representatives for high-quality products and services and showed some outstanding global branding in action. Marketing Automation Insider’s Personalized Lead-Gen. Some companies assign promising local managers to other countries and require would-be local managers to take a tour of duty at headquarters. Here are five suggestions on how to motivate and retain talented country managers when making the shift to global marketing: 1. Customisation is an international marketing strategy based on the idea that due to culture and other differences within countries, marketing should be tailored specifically to a country. Concerns that the larger subsidiaries would dominate the teams and that decision making would either be paralyzed or produce “lowest common denominator” results have proved groundless.
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